Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla (even number of toes)
Suborder: Tylopoda
Family: Camelidae

We call alpacas "modified ruminants"

because they have three "stomachs"

(actually three compartments of the stomach);
other ruminants (like deer, cattle, and sheep)

have four.
However, three is likely the ancestral version,

and four is likely the modification.

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Basic Alpaca Facts

Alpacas are members of the camel family, which originated in the Great Plains of
North America.  The earliest fossils date back 40 million years ago, when the
"camels" were cat sized with four toes. About 6-8 million years ago, some of them
migrated west into Asia where they evolved into Dromedary and Bactrian camels.  
Others traveled south into South America.  The varieties that stayed in North
America died out 10-15,000 years ago.

Alpacas were domesticated from vicunas, about 6000 years ago in South America.  
There are no wild alpacas; they are entirely a human created species.  They were
raised in many areas, from the coast to the high altitudes of the Andes and were
used primarily for their fleece.  (Their larger cousins, the llamas, were used mainly as
pack animals and to provide fiber for the common people.)

When the Spaniards invaded in 1532, they slaughtered the Incas' herds and
replaced them with sheep and cattle.  A few alpacas remained in the mountains
where the Spanish animals could not survive.  In the 1800's the European textile
market recognized the value of alpaca fleece, and the modern alpaca industry came
to life.

In 1984, the first alpacas were imported into the U.S.  North Americans also consider
them a fiber animal, but fleece, much as we love it, has been a secondary business
for many of us; the main emphasis was on breeding stock.  However, most breeders
are now thinking seriously about our transition to and growth as a fiber industry.  
We realize that the alpaca industry is centuries old, well established in the world
market, and can add substantial income to the farm.  


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Email:

bolewicz at netzero dot net

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PoopBoys.jpg

Boys' poop pile is compact - to cover up the presence of rivals?

Girls' pile is spread out - to advertise

breeding status?

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From Camelid Quarterly, March, 2015.

Wool blindness:

Something to think about when looking at those

cute fuzzy faces.

                  Rewarded in the show ring, but....

   Limited range of vision

   No correlation with fineness or density

   Less awareness of herdmates' body language

   Risk of eye trauma when debris is caught in fiber

   Increased maintenance to clip this excess fleece.

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Please don't reproduce these photos without permission.

Raising Alpacas

  They're lovable.  They're  not affectionate, unlike my sheep who enjoy being petted; only three or four of my alpacas are like that, though others will tolerate my pettingthem if they're relaxed.  But they're friendly on their own terms, they're curious and will be interested in whatever you're doing, and they're beautiful out in the pastures.

  Pregnancy lasts a little over 11 months, although one of my females went 366 days and another 371.  But these first-time mothers delivered healthy babies (crias), and their next pregnancies were of normal length.

  Females can be bred at 18 months of age if they've reached 110 pounds. Males usually begin breeding by age three.  We think they can easily reproduce for 10 years or more.

  Alpacas are easy to train, from basic halter training (learning to accept a halter and follow a lead line) to running an obstacle course.

  They're small enough not to be intimidating.  Young children can handle them, and I can walk up to a breeding male (while he's breeding), put my arm around his neck, and lead him away.

  They eat less than sheep: good grass hay supplemented with a grain/vitamin/mineral pellet.  Alfalfa hay is generally too rich for them; it's occasionally used to put weight on an alpaca recovering from an illness or stress, such as a nursing mother with a fast-growing cria.

  Pastures can be kept clean because alpacas use a common dung pile instead of scattering it all over the field.  This helps lower the risk of their picking up internal parasites - because they're not grazing amid the manure.

  Routine care is minimal and can be done by the owner: yearly vaccinations and deworming if fecal testing shows a problem. We use either horse paste dewormers (by mouth) or injections.  It's not hard to learn this; other alpaca owners or your vet will teach you.  Or you can schedule a regular "herd health day" with your vet and let him/her handle it.

  Alpacas have padded feet instead of hooves, so they don't tear your pastures into mud pits. The toenails need to be trimmed once or twice a year (individual animals grow their nails at different rates.)

  They're easy to transport.  We often use the station wagon rather than the trailer.  Friends use their van.

  If you spin or have contacts with spinners, raw fleece sells for $2-$4/oz for the prime blanket fiber.  That's 2-5 pounds per animal; the neck fleece provides another 1-2 pounds of usable fiber.  You can send your fleece to a mill to be spun into yarn (some businesses will also sell it for you) or process it yourself.

There's a good market for less expensive "pet" alpacas.

The downside?  

The initial expense of buying them; the cost of vet work for pregnancy confirmations and registrations; the fact that it's not a liquid investment -

you can't always sell them immediately if you suddenly need money.

 

Further exploration

If you think alpacas are for you, or that they might be:

    Visit the Alpaca Owners Association website (alpacainfo.com) and request an information packet.

    Use the AOA website to locate farms in your area and arrange a visit.  Go to small farms as well as the large well-publicized ranches.  Listen to different points of view on "the ideal alpaca."

    See if the AOA website lists upcoming shows, seminars, or other events near you.

    Join AOA.  It's somewhat expensive, but a small amount in relation to the amount you'd spend on an alpaca.  You'll receive a subscription to Alpacas Magazine and be able to attend the National Conference (at the end of May).  During the alpaca show, the judge will explain the reasoning behind each animal's placing.

    If you're still not sure, consider purchasing three or more halter trained "pet quality"males.  Test the waters:  can you handle them, can you give them the care they need, does hay make you sneeze, do you feel tied down, do you actually like them?

    More questions? Give us a call or send an email - we love to talk alpaca!

Email:  bolewicz at netzero dot net